The purpose of this document is to provide a "quick" introduction to the fundamental objects in oomphlib
. Assuming that you
and
the Quick Guide should enable you to solve basic PDE problems using oomphlib
. You should also consult the extensive list of example codes distributed with the library.
To solve a given PDE with oomphlib
, its discretisation needs to be specified in a Problem
object. This usually involves the specification of the Mesh
and the element types, followed by the application of the boundary conditions. If these steps are performed in the Problem
constructor, the driver code itself can be as simple as:
The amount of work required to represent a given PDE as a Problem
object is problemdependent:
oomphlib's
existing Mesh
objects and element types are sufficient to discretise the problem, the generation of a fullyfunctional Problem
object is straightforward. We shall discuss this case in the section How to build a Problem.oomphlib
provides the required element type but none of the available meshes are suitable, you will have to write your own Mesh
object. We shall discuss this in the section How to build a Mesh. It is also possible to create oomphlib
meshes based on the output from thirdparty (commercial) mesh generators. This is illustrated in another example.oomphlib
does not provide any suitable elements. In this case you will need to write your own element. When implementing elements in oomphlib
the element formulation is generally subdivided into (at least) two levels. Geometric elements implement the element geometry (e.g. 2D quad elements, 3D brick elements, etc); these geometric elements act as base classes for specific FiniteElements
that implement the discretisation of particular PDEs. We discuss the implementation of the two types of elements in two separate sections:In all cases, we start with a brief description of the minimum functionality that must be implemented for the various objects. The general principles are then illustrated by considering the discretisation of the model problem
Solve in the onedimensional domain , subject to

by isoparametric twonode elements. (Please consult the Introduction for a review of the relevant finite element theory.) The source code for this example (one_d_poisson_generic_only.cc) is selfcontained and uses only objects from the "generic" part of the oomphlib
library. [oomphlib
does, of course, provide 1D meshes and Poisson elements but we deliberately ignore these because we wish to illustrate how to build such objects from scratch. The alternative example code one_d_poisson.cc, discussed in another example illustrates the implementation of the same problem using existing library objects.]
The main purpose of this document is to provide a "quick" introduction to oomphlib's
fundamental objects, so the example classes presented below are fullyfunctional but very basic. We provide exercises at the end of each section to allow the reader to explore various straightforward improvements, most of which are implemented in the corresponding objects in the library. Finally, the section Further comments provides a discussion of some general design principles that should be respected when creating new classes for use with the library.
All specific Problems
should be implemented as objects that inherit from the generic Problem
class. These specific Problem
objects will vary considerably depending on the exact details of the problem being solved.
Only a few member functions must be implemented for each specific Problem
class:
The Problem constructor SomeSpecificProblem(...)
usually contains the following steps:
Mesh
(which may involve passing a particular element type as a template parameter), e.g. oomphlib
treats all problems as nonlinear problems and employs Newton's method to solve the system of nonlinear algebraic equations that results from its spatial (and, in timedependent problems, temporal) discretisation. Within this framework, linear problems are special cases for which Newton's method converges in one step.
The (pure virtual) member function Problem::actions_before_newton_solve()
should contain everything that must be done before a nonlinear solve to complete the specification of the problem. For example, the function may contain a call to update the boundary conditions.
If desired, finer granularity may be obtained by overloading the empty virtual functions Problem::actions_before_newton_convergence_check()
, Problem::actions_before_newton_step()
and/or Problem::actions_before_implicit_timestep()
, which are executed before each calculation of the maximum value of the residuals, each Newton step or each timestep, respectively. We refer to a separate document for a more detailed discussion of the various "action functions" executed by oomphlib's
Newton solver.
The (pure virtual) member function Problem::actions_after_newton_solve()
should contain everything that is to take place after each nonlinear solve. For example, the function might contain commands to update the values of any "dependent" variables, or postprocessing commands.
Again, the finergrained member functions Problem::actions_after_newton_step()
and
Problem::actions_after_implicit_timestep()
are provided.
Here is the full specification for the DemoPoissonProblem
class (taken from one_d_poisson_generic_only.cc) which implements the discretisation of the 1D Poisson problem described above, using a Mesh
of type OneDimMesh
, with elements of type TwoNodePoissonElements
.
(The sign of the source function is an optional argument to the problem constructor. If no argument is specified, the + sign is used.) Modify the
actions_after_newton_solve()
function so that it writes the exact solution into another file, "exact_solution.dat", say.Problem::self_test()
.oomphlib
provides a large number of fullyfunctional Mesh
objects. Many of these meshes can easily be adapted to discretise other domains, provided the domain has the same topology as the original Mesh
. We shall illustrate this in section How to adapt an existing Mesh to a different domain shape below.
If the domain is too different from any of the existing meshes, a new, customised Mesh
object, SpecificMesh
, say, must be created. The specific mesh should be created as an object that inherits from the generic Mesh
class. To maximise the potential for codereuse, we recommended making the element type a template parameter of the SpecificMesh
class.
This allows the SpecificMesh
to be used with any FiniteElement
that is based on the same geometric element type (see the section How to build a new geometric element for a more detailed discussion of geometric elements).
The minimum requirements for a specific mesh object are that it must:
Nodes
,Mesh::Element_pt
vector,Nodes
in the Mesh::Node_pt
vector,Nodes
Nodes
.We suggest that all specific Mesh
constructors also set up an auxiliary lookup scheme that stores information about the mesh boundaries. While this is not strictly required, it greatly facilitates the application of boundary conditions in complex domains. Firstly, the function Mesh::set_nboundary(...)
must be called to specify the number of mesh boundaries. In addition, the generic Mesh
class provides a function Mesh::add_boundary_node(i,node_pt)
, which adds the Node
pointed to by node_pt
to the Mesh's
ith boundary and constructs the required lookup schemes, including a reverse lookup scheme that informs all Nodes
which mesh boundaries (if any) they are located on. (In our simple 1D example there are only two boundaries, each consisting of a single Node.) Although this step is optional, it is required during mesh adaptation – if the reverse lookup scheme has not been set up, a warning is issued and the code execution stops when any mesh adaptation is attempted. Implementation detail: Nodes
that are located on mesh boundaries must be defined as BoundaryNodes
.
The majority of the work required to build a specific Mesh
takes place in its constructor. Typically, the constructor creates the elements (of the type specified by the template parameter ELEMENT
) and uses the elements' member function FiniteElement::construct_node(...)
to create the new Nodes
. The equivalent member function FiniteElement::construct_boundary_node(...)
is used to create new BoundaryNodes
.
Here is the complete class definition for a simple, onedimensional (line) mesh which discretises the 1D domain using a specified number of equallyspaced elements.
To build a OneDimMesh
with ten elements of type SomeElement
, say, the Problem
constructor would contain the following
Given that mesh generation tends to be a fairly tedious process, one should always check whether it is possible to deform an existing Mesh
into a shape that matches the required domain. Provided that the new domain has the same topology as the domain represented by the original Mesh
, this can always be done by repositioning the Nodes. Such "deformed" Meshes
should be implemented via inheritance, by deriving the new Mesh
from an existing one.
Here is an example that illustrates the procedure. Assume we wish to solve an equation in the 2D annular domain bounded (in polar coordinates) by and . Inspection of the list of available meshes shows that oomphlib
does not provide a mesh for this geometry. However, there is a Mesh
object, SimpleRectangularMesh
, which provides a uniform discretisation of a 2D rectangular domain and with quadrilateral elements. Since the topology of the two domains is identical, the annular mesh can be implemented in a few lines of code:
Modify the OneDimMesh
object so that it provides a piecewise uniform discretisation of the domain : equally spaced elements are to be placed in the the region , while elements are to be placed in the the region . Pass the parameters and to the mesh constructor. Construct the modified mesh via inheritance from the basic OneDimMesh
and include an error check to confirm that .
oomphlib
provides fullyfunctional FiniteElements
for the discretisation of a wide range of PDEs. Most of the existing elements are constructed in a threelevel hierarchy, the base being the generic FiniteElement
class. The next level in the hierarchy contains geometric elements (e.g. 1D line elements, 2D quad or triangular elements, 3D brick elements, etc.). These geometric classes form the bases for elements that implement the discretisation of particular PDEs. This hierarchy maximises the potential for codereuse, because it allows many different specific elements to be derived from the same geometric element.
We shall discuss the implementation of new element types in two sections:
Assume that we wish to design a new element type, SpecificElement
, say, that implements the discretisation of a system of PDEs on an existing geometric element. The SpecificElement
class needs to implement the following functions:
Most specific finite element classes will contain further member functions and member data to provide additional, problemspecific functionality. As a concrete example, we consider the TwoNodePoissonElement
, a specific FiniteElement
that provides an isoparametric discretisation of the 1D Poisson equation (1), based on the geometric element TwoNodeGeometricElement
, to be discussed below:
In addition to the FiniteElement
member functions discussed above, this element provides a function that defines the source function ,
where the sign of the source function is stored as private member data
and can be set by the access function
We provide a member function that returns the (single) nodal value stored at a specified local node in the element,
Finally, it is good practice to implement a selftest function that provides a sanity check of all data before the problem is solved. oomphlib
already provides selftest functions for all fundamental objects. Additional tests can be added by overloading these. For instance, in our Poisson element, the Sign
variable should only take the values . This can be tested with the following function, which also executes the self_test()
function of the underlying FiniteElement:
We will now discuss the implementation of the generic FiniteElement
member functions for the specific TwoNodePoissonElement:
The function returns the number of values that are stored at the element's nth
local node. In our scalar Poisson problem, each node stores one value:
The function is used by FiniteElement::construct_node(...)
to determine the amount of storage to be allocated at each of the element's Nodes
.
This function calculates the element's residual vector whose entries are labelled by the local equation numbers. (Consult the Introduction for a detailed discussion of the weak form of Poisson's equation and its finite element discretisation which produces the discrete residual implemented here.) The spatial integration over the element is performed by the (default) integration scheme specified in the underlying geometric element. Note that it should (must) not be assumed that the residuals vector has been set to zero before the function call.
This function calculates the element's Jacobian matrix and its residual vector, performing the spatial integration with the (default) integration scheme defined in the underlying geometric element. The entries in the Jacobian matrix and the residual vector are labelled by the local equation numbers. Note that neither the residuals vector nor the Jacobian matrix should be assumed to have been initialised to zero before the function call.
Note: There is a large amount of code duplication between the get_residuals()
and get_jacobian()
functions. To avoid this, we usually implement the computation of the residual vector and the Jacobian matrix in a single function containing the loop over the integration points. We then use a boolean flag as an additional argument to determine whether the Jacobian matrix should be assembled, e.g.
The output function is used to print the nodal values over the element
get_generic_residual_contribution(...)
as a private member function of the TwoNodePoissonElement
. Use the function to avoid the large amount of code duplication between get_residuals(...)
and get_jacobian(...)
by rewriting these functions as follows: TwoNodePoissonElement::f(...)
makes it impossible to use the TwoNodePoissonElement
to solve the Poisson equation with any other source functions, even though the discretisation of the ODE would otherwise be completely identical. A better implementation would allow the "user" to specify a different source function without having to change the implementation of the element class itself. oomphlib
:TwoNodePoissonElement
class and initialise it to NULL in the constructor: TwoNodePoissonElement::f(...)
function, so that it evaluates the (global) function pointed to by the source function pointer. If possible, provide a default value for the case when the function pointer has not been set: TwoNodePoissonElement
to a TwoNodeSelfAdjointElement
that implements the isoparametric discretisation of the selfadjoint ODE Use function pointers to allow the "user" to specify the coefficient functions and .
Geometric elements define the geometry of a FiniteElement
. They are usually implemented as distinct classes that can then be used to create a number of FiniteElements
each discretising a specific PDE, but with the same underlying geometrical representation. For this purpose, each geometric FiniteElement
must implement the following functions:
FiniteElements
in 3D space, say.)FiniteElements
to interpolate the unknown function(s) between the nodal values. It is usually necessary to implement the following additional functions:
Further member functions and member data may be defined as and when required. For instance, all specific FiniteElements
must store a pointer to an (instantiated) spatial integration scheme. It is good practice to provide a default integration scheme for each geometric element and to ensure its instantiation by making it a static data member of the geometric element class. This allows the constructor of the geometric element to set the pointer to the default integration scheme. If the default is not appropriate for a specific derived FiniteElement
, the default assignment can be overwritten in the constructor of the derived class.
As a concrete example, we consider the implementation of the onedimensional, twonode geometric element, TwoNodeGeometricElement
, that uses linear shape functions to define the mapping between the element's local and global coordinates. The element is derived from the FiniteElement
base class,
and it uses a onedimensional, twopoint Gauss rule as the default spatial integration scheme
Here is the implementation of the generic FiniteElement
member functions for our specific geometric FiniteElement:
The constructor sets the number of local nodes in the element (2), sets the dimension of the element (1) and sets the pointer to the spatial integration scheme to be the default that is defined and instantiated as a static data member of the class:
This function returns the shape functions at the local element coordinate, s. The shape functions are used to interpolate the position, and also, any data values stored at nodes in derived, isoparametric elements.
This function returns the shape functions and their derivatives with respect to the local coordinates
Return the number of nodes along the element's 1d "edge" – for a onedimensional element, this is obviously the same as the number of nodes:
TwoNodeGeometricElement
to a ThreeNodeGeometricElement
in which quadratic interpolation is used to interpolate the Eulerian coordinates between the nodal points. Use this element as a basis for a ThreeNodePoissonElement
and convince yourself that changing the TwoNodePoissonElement
to a ThreeNodePoissonElement
only requires the change of a single line of code!NNODE
nodes. Consider carefully which member functions you can implement in generality and which member functions require specialised implementations. Provide the specialised member functions for elements with two, three and four nodes.GeometricLineElements
to implement an equivalent generalisation of the TwoNodePoissonElement
and ThreeNodePoissonElement
classes to the general class where .
We reiterate that the main purpose of this document is to provide a quick introduction to oomphlib's
fundamental objects. The exercises have already highlighted several undesirable features of the simple example classes which could easily be improved to facilitate the (re)use of the classes in different problems. Here we shall briefly discuss some further modifications that we regard as good practice, and which tend to be implemented in the existing classes in oomphlib
:
The exercises in the section How to build a new geometric element suggest the use of templating to implement families of objects. This idea also permits the implementation of (geometric and specific) FiniteElements
in arbitrary spatial dimensions. For instance, oomphlib's
QElement
class represents the family of (line/quadrilateral/brickshaped) geometric elements with an arbitrary number of nodes along the elements' 1D edges. Thus, a QElement<1,3>
is a threenode 1D line element, a QElement<3,2>
is an eightnode 3D brick element, etc.
These geometric elements naturally form the basis for corresponding specific elements, such as the QPoissonElement
family which provides an isoparametric discretisation of the Poisson equation (in an arbitrary spatial dimension), based on the QElements
with the same template parameters.
The computation of the element's residual vector and the Jacobian matrix requires the evaluation of the element's shape functions, , and their derivatives with respect to the global coordinate, , at the element's integration points. In our simple example class, TwoNodePoissonElement
, we (re)compute these functions "on the fly", using the function
where the local coordinate of the integration point is passed in the (onedimensional) vector s
.
The recomputation is wasteful because:
Sign
variable. Their recomputation during the second solve could therefore be avoided if we stored their values in a suitable container.To circumvent these potential inefficiencies, oomphlib
provides alternative interfaces for various functions that compute shape functions and their derivatives:
s
, can be replaced by unsigned
argument int_point
identifies the integration point (as specified by the element's spatial integration scheme). In "standard" FiniteElements
the function FiniteElement::shape_at_knot(...)
simply determines the position of the integration point and calls FiniteElement::shape(...)
and so the shape functions are still computed "on the fly". The templated class StorableShapeElement<ELEMENT>
, however, may be used to upgrade any class derived from FiniteElement
into a class that can store the values of the shape functions and their derivatives at the integration points. The function shape_at_knot(...)
is overloaded so that when called for the first time, it computes the values of the shape function at all integration points and stores them for future reference. In subsequent calls, the function returns the stored values, rather than recomputing them.These functions are all overloaded in the StorableShapeElement<ELEMENT>
class and by default the overloaded functions store the precomputed values of the shape functions and their derivatives locally within each element. This implementation ensures data locality and should increase the speed of access to the stored values. However, it can also create significant storage overheads. oomphlib
therefore provides the function
which frees up the storage in the element and replaces it by pointerbased access to the values stored in another element. Typically, all elements in a mesh are of the same type and use the same spatial integration scheme and so the values of the shape functions need only be stored in one element.
Derivatives of the element's shape functions with respect to the global Eulerian coordinates are generally computed by
and
These functions also return the Jacobian of the mapping between the local and global coordinates – the Jacobian can also be computed independently from
The derivatives of the shape functions with respect the global coordinates depend on the nodal positions, and it is not safe to assume that they will remain constant. For instance in moving boundary problems, the position of the nodes is determined as part of the solution. By default, the functions
and
recompute the derivatives at the specified integration point "on the fly". If the "user" is confident that in his/her problem, the nodal positions will not change, the values can be precomputed by calling
Once these functions have been called, any subsequent calls to the *_eulerian_at_knot
(...) functions return the stored values. To revert to the case in which the derivatives are recomputed "on the fly", the storage for the derivatives must be deleted by
calling
Notes:
StorableShapeSolidElement<ELEMENT>
provides equivalent overloaded functions for derivatives with respect to the element's Lagrangian coordinates that are used in solid mechanics problems.We suggested that any newly developed elements should be constructed in a threelevel hierarchy, FiniteElement
– Geometric Element – Specific FiniteElement
. Most finite elements in oomphlib
incorporate an additional intermediate "equation class" which implements the computation of the element residual vector and the element Jacobian matrix in terms of abstract shape and test functions, defined as pure virtual functions in the "equation class". This makes it easy to change the specific element formulation, without having to reimplement the weak form of the governing equation.
Note that different element types may store the same physical variable at different locations. For example, the pressure in the Navier–Stokes equations may be stored as internal Data
(discontinuous) or nodal Data
(continuous). Particular equation classes may require internal numbering schemes that store the appropriate local equation numbers for each physical variable. These schemes must be assembled for each specific element in the function GeneralisedElement::assign_additional_local_eqn_numbers()
, which is called from within Problem::assign_eqn_numbers()
.
As an example, consider the weak form of the 2D advection diffusion equation
where the Peclet number, , and the "wind" are given. We expand the unknown function in terms of the (global) basis functions ,
where is the total number of nodes in the mesh. The mapping between the element's local and global coordinates is represented in terms of the local shape functions as
where is the number of nodes in the element.
The following sketch illustrates how this discretisation is implemented in oomphlib's
QAdvectionDiffusionElement
– an isoparametric, quadrilateral element, based on the Galerkin discretisation of the weak form with
At large Peclet number, the Galerkin discretisation of the advection diffusion equation is wellknown to produce spurious "wiggles" in the solution. These can be suppressed by SUPG stabilisation which employs test functions, , that differ from the basis function, ,
where is a stabilisation parameter. This can be implemented with a trivial change to the QAdvectionDiffusionElement
class – the QSUPGAdvectionDiffusionElement
simply provides a different implementation of the test functions.
We have already illustrated the use of oomphlib's
generic self_test()
functions. The toplevel Problem::self_test()
function performs a systematic test of all fundamental objects involved in a specific problem and can be used to diagnose any problems. It is good practise to implement further self_test()
functions in any newly developed classes. The generic self_test()
functions are defined to be virtual functions in oomphlib's
fundamental objects and can be overloaded. Obviously, the self_test()
function in a specific derived object should still call the self_test()
function of the underlying fundamental object. The TwoNodePoissonElement::self_test()
function, listed in in the section How to implement a new system of equations as a specific FiniteElement illustrates the procedure.
While frequent sanity checks are helpful during codedevelopment, they can introduce significant overheads into the code execution. oomphlib
therefore provides a compiler flag PARANOID, which allows the execution of sanity checks to be switched on or off. When developing new classes, sanity checks should be implemented to catch any potential problems, but the relevant code should be surrounded by ifdef/endif
statements to allow the tests to be disabled. Here is an example:
Note that we throw a specific OomphLibError
object after catching the error – this allows the provision of more explicit (and hopefully more meaningful) error messages.
Many access functions that provide indexed access to a private container, do, in fact, access a private STL vector. Explicit range checking for these (frequent!) cases can be avoided by changing the container to oomphlib's
Vector
class. The Vector
class performs automatic range checking, if oomphlib's
generic
library is compiled with the RANGE_CHECKING
flag set (i.e. if DRANGE_CHECKING
is specified as a compilation flag for the C++ compiler). For access functions that do not use the Vector
class you should implement your own range checks using the RANGE_CHECKING compiler flag.
In general, we set the equation number to 1 to indicate that a nodal value is pinned, i.e. prescribed by boundary conditions. This convention is used throughout oomphlib
, but the direct use of 1 as a (bad!) "magic number" is generally avoided. Instead we refer to the static data member of the Data
class
which is (of course) set to 1. Similarly, when nodes are created, the equation numbers of their value(s) are initialised to a value of 10, represented by the static data member
This allows the function Problem::self_test()
to check if any values have not been classified as pinned or free.
As the name of the library suggests, oomphlib's
existing "singlephysics" elements are (and any newly designed ones should be) designed so that they can easily be used in multiphysics problems. We anticipate two types of multiphysics interactions:
Multiphysics elements for such problems are usually implemented by combining two (or more) singlephysics elements via multiple inheritance. The combined, multiphysics element will obviously have a larger number of degrees of freedom than the constituent singlephysics elements. The combined element typically calls the get_residuals(...)
function of the two constituent elements and concatenates their residual vectors. When computing the Jacobian matrix, the "single physics" elements provide the diagonal blocks for the Jacobian matrix of the multiphysics element, while the offdiagonal interaction blocks must be computed separately. The details of the implementation vary from problem to problem. However, any singlephysics element must satisfy the following requirements if it is to be used as a base class for derived multiphysics elements:
The computation of the element residual vector and the element Jacobian matrix typically involves a loop over the element's integration points, in which each integration point adds a further contribution to the entries. In multiphysics problems it is crucial that the initialisation of the residual vector and the Jacobian matrix only sets the element's "own" entries to zero.
To illustrate this point, consider what would happen if we used the TwoNodePoissonElement::get_jacobian(...)
function, discussed in the section The function FiniteElement::get_jacobian(residuals,jacobian), in a derived multiphysics element, which combines the TwoNodePoissonElement
with another element, TwoNodeSomeOtherEquationElement
, say. Assume that we implement the function get_jacobian(...)
of the combined element so that it first calls the function TwoNodeSomeOtherEquationElement::get_jacobian(...)
to determine the first diagonal block in the combined Jacobian matrix. When we call TwoNodePoissonElement::get_jacobian(...)
to compute the entries in the second diagonal block, the initialisation loop
would initialise the entire Jacobian matrix, thus wiping out the entries that were already computed by
TwoNodeSomeOtherEquationElement::get_jacobian(...)
.
The strategy used in oomphlib
to permit the easy combination of elements is to use the two protected member functions of the GeneralisedElement
class:
and
These functions DO NOT initialise the entries of the residuals vector or the Jacobian matrix. Instead, the functions merely add the appropriate contributions to the vector and the matrix entries. The default version of the get_residuals()
and get_jacobian()
functions, defined in GeneralisedElement
, are simple wrappers that initialise the residuals and Jacobian to zero and then call the appropriate fill_in_contribution
... function.
The get_residuals
function, for example, can thus be overloaded in a multiphysics element, as follows:
It is, therefore, recommended that authors of "singlephysics" elements, overload fill_in_contribution_to_residuals(...)
and fill_in_contribution_to_jacobian(...)
, rather than get_residuals()
and get_jacobian(...)
, respectively. A further advantage of the implementation is that the author need not worry about initialisation of the residuals vector or the Jacobian matrix when using the "fill_in_"
rather than the "get_"
functions.
To allow for an interaction between multiple equations, any forcing functions (such as the source function in the Poisson equation) should be implemented as virtual functions. This allows them to be overloaded in derived, multiphysics elements where the forcing function in one equation might depend on the unknowns in another one.
Furthermore, to avoid clashes of function names that may occur when two singlephysics elements are combined, member functions that can be expected to have counterparts in the context of other equations should be given suitable modifiers. For instance,
is a better name for a member function that returns the source function in the advectiondiffusion equations than
since many other equations are likely to have source functions, too. It is obviously impossible to completely avoid such clashes but this strategy makes them less likely to occur. We are fairly confident that the relevant member functions of all existing elements in oomphlib
have been given suitable modifiers to avoid clashes of this type. Therefore, you should be able to combine any element with any other element in the library. If you find a counterexample let us know, and we will rectify this in the next release. In the meantime exploit the fact that oomphlib
is an open source library; you can change anything you want!
When implementing the singlephysics TwoNodePoissonElement
, discussed above, we provided an access function u(n)
that returns the (single) nodal value, stored at the element's n
th Node
. The function was implemented as a simple wrapper that followed the pointer to the element's n
th Node
and returned the zeroth nodal value stored at that Node:
In a singlephysics context, this implementation is perfectly acceptable since we know a priori that in a scalar problem each Node
only stores a single value.
The same logic suggests that a TwoNodeAdvectionDiffusionElement
would have a member function
However, merging these two elements via multiple inheritance creates two problems. First we have clash of names which could have been avoided by following rule 2 above and calling the two functions TwoNodePoissonElement::u_poisson(...)
and TwoNodeAdvectionDiffusionElement::u_adv_diff(...)
, say. More serious is that both elements regard the zeroth nodal value as "their own". This can (and should!) be avoided by the following reimplementation:
where the virtual function u_index_poisson()
provides the default index at which the Poisson nodal values are stored in a singlephysics context:
The advectiondiffusion element can be modified in the same way:
with
In a combined multiphysics problem, we can now merge the two elements by multiple inheritance,
Name clashes are already avoided, so we only have to overwrite the two index functions to indicate which (scalar) value is stored as which nodal value:
and
Specific examples that illustrate the creation of (nontrivial) multiphysics elements by multiple inheritance are provided in the list of example codes.
In moving mesh problems, the timederivative of a nodal value (approximated by the Node's TimeStepper
) is not the same as the Eulerian timederivative that "usually" occurs in the governing equation. The former represents the rate of change when following the moving node; the latter is the rate of change evaluated at a fixed Eulerian position. The two timederivatives are related to each other via the ALE relation
where is the spatial dimension of the problem and is the velocity of the node. Any Eulerian timederivatives in the governing equation should be implemented in the above form to ensure that the element remains functional in moving mesh problems. See the example describing the solution of the unsteady heat equation in a moving domain for further details.
A pdf version of this document is available.